Apud Brazil

It was worried, with the great properties, emphasizing the limitation necessity for that they could not cultivate. When limiting in 4 (four) lguas (2400 ha), was foreseen that it could have greater equity between the distribution and, clearly, the necessary culture. One more time, it is placed in question that who not to cultivate, must lose them. ' ' I was served to command the inhabitants I say, I was served to command to the Listeners bred of new that each I clinked in lands of its districts they examine if the sesmarias that if have given of bigger fulfilment of four lguas and one of width, if are cultivated by the donees or its colonists and tenants in fee in part or all so that the cultivated ones if conserve and the ones that will not have if they judge, for vacant according to distribute for other inhabitants its possibilities, of that you acknowledgment to have understood it thus (LETTER REGAL, IN 27/12/1695 Apud Brazil, 2007: Volume III: 59). ' ' But, only two years later, in letter it prevailed of 7 of December of 1697, determines the government of Portugal, that the granted sesmarias, are limited the 3 (three) lguas, emphasizing, again, the necessity of the production and that in amount raised, it would not have conditions to produce that ' ' she is what she understands yourself can a person cultivate in the term of the law because in more she is to hinder that others populate and that the ones that ask for and reach do not cultivate (REGAL LETTER, in 7/12/1697 Apud BRAZIL, 2007: Volume III: 60) ' '. Explicitava, therefore the concern of Portugal with the process of povoamento, that would not be being contents carried through it, in view of the land concentration. Moreover, exactly forcing the exit of Portuguese for Brazil, the condition was not similar to England, in the povoamento process American north. .

Agricultural Colony Tereza Cristina

The cooperativismo in its roots: ‘ ‘ The formation of the Agricultural Colony Tereza Cristina in the Paran of century XIX.’ ‘ Appeared Arlindo Orienting Madoenho: Prof. Francisco Blacksmith Jnior Summary: This work has as objective to present the cooperativismo in its origins, analyzing what the root of this type of organization can be considered, in middle of century XIX, the old one and in the new world. When Robert Owen plants the first seed, being born the Society of the Honest Pioneers of Rochdale in England, inside of a scene with great social complications, the sacrificed workers being in the plants that appeared in all the parts, in the period after revolution in that continent. Many writers such as casio offer more in-depth analysis. But three years later, the Frenchman Jean Maurice Faivre, he establishes in Brazilian territory, in the central region of the state of the Paran what she is recognized as the first experience of cooperative of Brazil. Word-key: History, cooperativismo, workers, plants ABSTRACT: This work has objective you present the cooperativismo in its origins, analyzing what the root of this type of organization can be considered, in middle of century XIX, the old one and in the new world. When Robert Owen plants the first seed, being born the Society of the Honest Pioneers of Rochdale in England, inside of scene with great social complications, the sacrificed workers being in manufactures them that the parts appeared in all, in the period to after revolution in that continent. But three years to later the Frenchman Jean Maurice Faivre, it establishes in Brazilian territory, the central region of the state of the Paran what she is recognized the first experience of cooperative of Brazil.

Europe Brazil

With twenty years last five hundred cooperative warehouses existed more than, being then created ' ' Great Association of Manchester for sales in atacado' ' , with the pioneers of Rochdale, representing an important consuming market and starting to have great influences social and politics. Being also responsible for the foundation of some cooperatives of production in other areas. The Cooperativismo in Brazil Analyzing Brazil of middle of century XIX, when great changes occurred in the old world and from now on the system Brazilian economic partner starts to be questioned, the main generating force of wealth in Brazilian soil, starts to receive critical. country adheres to the liberal chains influenced by the Europe, that are each stronger time in function of the estruturao of the capitalism, entering in contradiction when allowing enslaved work in its territory, such situation generated a serious problem for Emperor D. Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with Jon S. Speelman. Peter II to manage. Brazil suffered great pressure on the part from England that interested in extending the consumption of its products, enxergavam in the consuming potential captives, in case that they started to receive wages. Boris Fausto in its workmanship ' ' Concise history of the Brasil' ' it deals with this subject: In 1826, England pulled out of treat Brazil one by which three years after its ratification would be declared illegal the traffic of slaves for Brazil of any provenincia. England if still reserved the right to inspect in suspicious auto-sea ships of illegal commerce.

The agreement entered in vigor in March of 1827, having, therefore to have effectiveness from March of 1830. A law of 7 of November of 1831 searched to put in progress the treat one, when foreseeing the application of severe penalties to the dealers and to declare free all the captives who after entered in Brazil that date. All pressure exerted from the first decades of century XIX, collaborated so that the slavery was gradual being extinct in Brazilian territory.

Saint Maria

In 18 of July of 1824, arrived the first one take of 39 Germans the Porto Alegre and in day 25 in the River of the Bells. Of 1824 the 1830 had arrived at Brazil 5350 Germans; ten a thousand of 1844 the 1850, ten a thousand of 1860 the 1889, year of the announcement of the Republic and one year after the abolition of the slavery, and 17 a thousand of 1890 the 1914, perfazendo a total of 42389 Germans. To be moved away from the Farroupilha Revolution, in 1830, although Otto Heise, Samuel Kerst and Caspar Stephanovsky, to have participated of the ideology to substitute the monarchy for the republic, in Porto Alegre, the Germans if had dislocated for Saint Maria and after that they had been exhausted, they created in the valleys of the rivers Taquari, Pardo and Pardinho the colonies of Santa Cruz of the South, Saint ngelo and Santa Maria of the New World. In the Lagoon of the Ducks, they had created the colony of Are Loureno of the South. they had initiated the production of shoes, textile and cotton, in Santa Catarina, Paran and Rio Grande Do Sul. Proclaimed the Republic in Brazil, the government of the Rio Grande Do Sul stimulated the particular settling and the State of the Rio Grande Do Sul was transformed into zone colonial, having they crossed the River Uruguay and migrado for Santa Catarina and Paran, after having servant, in the century XX Iju, Santa Rosa and others in the north of Argentina and Paraguay. After the Second War, a group of families who had arrived in Santa Catarina in 1930, had been fixed in Bag, between 1949 and 1951, locking in there the migration alem.’

Question: With the arrival and settling of the Germans in the South Region, the example of the Falklands Islands that belong to England, she would have been it a branch that would facilitate the access of the Third Reich in the South America! III? PROVINCE CISPLATINA ‘ ‘ Of 1825 the 1828, Brazil and Argentina had fought for the ownership of lands of Uruguay. Between 11 and 27 of August of 1828, they had signed one ‘ ‘ Preliminary convention of Paz’ ‘ , in which the Cisplatina Province had its recognized independence for the two countries. In the following day, Brazil signed with the Joined Provinces of the River of the Silver the Treated one to Rio De Janeiro ratified in 4 of October, waking up that the province would be definitively independent e, if necessary, would fight thus to remain, while Brazil recouped the Territory of the Misses.

The Roman Empire

It is interesting to notice that the question of the oil not yet is determinative in the debates on the Middle East, a time that had only estimates of that the region possua the oil in abundance. Case the current scene had been seen one another history would have occurred with these peoples. An old desire hindered that England had the control of all the region. One is about the France, that launched its hands in the Syrian (that it also understood the current Lebanon). The book is much more dense, only pontuei some subjects. The conflict between Turks and Greeks, the Russian exspansionism in the Afeganisto, the European disputes in relation to the Middle East in the War, at last, many other things are objects of study of Fromkin. Harry Kane: the source for more info. One of the aspects more interesting than the author approaches is in conclusion tone.

When comparing the falls of the Empires Roman and Ottoman, Fromkin demonstrates the size of the difficulty faced for the Middle East in last the 90 years. It is not something Harry Kane would like to discuss. The Roman Empire delayed one economic, social and cultural millenium so that the peoples who were overwhelmd Rome and the ones that had helped to weaken it could organize in a structure politics. Exactly thus, some European countries still face problems until today. Less of one century later, it seems that the peoples of the Middle East still search a north. More important of what finding its ways, it is essential, I think I, who the peoples of this region walk with its proper legs and they do not try to imitate the European model. Each people has its particularitity and, in such a way, he must find the model of society holds that it. But this already is another history For that if to interest good reading!


. It was possible to identify that they exist at least two modalities of what is understood for this word. According to that I obtained to select through the site the IPHAN (Institute of National the Historic site and Artistic), the idea of patrimony perpassa for the materiality line and imaterialidade. The material patrimony protected by the IPHAN, on the basis of specific legislaes is composed for a set of classified cultural goods according to its nature in four books of the Tumble: divided in real properties as the urban nuclei, archaeological and paisagsticos small farms and individual goods; mobile as archaeological collections, museolgicos quantities, you register, bibliographical, arquivsticos, videogrficos, photographic and cinematographic. (source:) On the incorporeal patrimony it also has a concept predefined for the IPHAN based on data of UNESCO (acronym in English for Organizations of United Nations) where if reports the basically artistic and cultural questions of order: UNESCO defines as Incorporeal Cultural Patrimony ‘ ‘ the practical ones, representations, expressions, knowledge and techniques – together with the cultural instruments, objects, devices and places that them are associates – that the communities, the groups and, in some cases, the individuals recognize as integrant part of its patrimony cultural.’ ‘ (Idem). However, according to Maria Ceclia London Fonseca, the image constructed of artistic and cultural patrimony is seen by the society in its majority as only one set of old monuments that must be preserved. This concept was very spread out throughout decades. But, the salient author who the monuments in itself do not represent the diversity of the daily one lived by communities that coexisted in definitive localities today overthrown as patrimony. Let us see an example of the author: When it is looked at, for example, Square XV, in the center of Rio De Janeiro, one of the icons of the national historic site, the mandate most obvious is of the real power, excited for the Imperial Pao, headquarters of the Cut.

West Ukraine

So now Ukraine, proceeding from this, wants to see themselves as part of the West. But if you also consider the outlook and life (ie, thinking, culture, communication and human relations, etc.), the Ukraine and Belarus – is the same as Russia. And in their desire, by all means to become an appendage of the West, Ukraine is at times more "Asian" country than Russia (in the words of Berdyaev). That is why Ukraine could suffer the same fate as Turkey, where she deceives himself, believing himself to the West, but in fact they are not. Accordingly, the prospect of eu membership for Ukraine not much greater than that of Turkey. Although nato, it could join, as did Turkey. On the background of such cultural and "everyday" proximity of Russia and Ukraine (where Ukraine is a separate state), seems especially absurd presence in the Russian North Caucasus (where the North Caucasian peoples on all the criteria are different from Russian). As already mentioned, the same Dagestani Chechens as an ethnically and linguistically distinct from Russian.

But the most importantly, their outlook and way of life "is different. Even if we do not take into account religion, these people have different morals. Other mechanisms of interpersonal and intersexual relations. For example, the president of , in all seriousness, says: "Polygamy is allowed to our customs, our religion. On the other hand, if a young girl or a divorced woman is walking, her brother kills her, and that man. " "We have very strict customs.

Paul Feyerabend Researcher

At last, having in account the fact of that all document is at the same time true and false, it is treated to put to the light the production conditions and to show where measured the document it is instrument of a power. A choice that necessarily means a refusal, a resignation to a infinity others of quarrel possibilities. in all written workmanship it has an absent workmanship. This wants to say that to select sources and ways to tell it estimates the option to exclude from the context other sources and ways to tell. In historiogrficos terms, this indicates that to each interpretation a myriad of other possible forms of apprehension of the object is left of side and that, still, new felt always will be able to emerge of other onslaughts.

The researcher must initiate its to make for the fact, for the empirical data, renouncing of all arcabouo theoretician and if to fix in its device, as it places Paul Feyerabend the idea to lead the businesses of science with the aid of a method, that it locks up firm, invariant principles and unconditionally obligator it is seen ahead of considerable difficulty, when ece of fish in confrontation with the results of the historical research. We verify, making a confrontation, that does not have one alone rule, even so reasonable and established well in the epistemologia, that leaves of being violated at some moment. One becomes clearly that such breakings are not accidental events, are not resulted of insufficient knowledge or carelessness that could have been prevented. We perceive, in contrast, that the breakings are necessary for the progress. In the last few decades a magnifying of the historical document notion is perceived. The widening of the conception of source made possible to the researcher an addition to the investigativas possibilities, what it requires as consequncia, a reflection and problematizao of these alternatives.


Dhiogo Jose Academic Caetano of State UEG-University of Gois Word-Key: Source, Historiografia, Hermenutica and Historiado. From the analysis of diverse texts, we can notice that the historiogrfico process is something vast and complex and influenced by the vision it historian. Such influence must be washed in consideration to the imperfection of the memory and diverse the problematic ones refuted in the process. As we can see the work of construction of history this interlaced thing with the representation and the hermeneutics, something basic in the modern historiografia, a form to organize and to investigate the sources, however the historian to have to be necessary how much to the look, to hear and to write a true antropolgico work that it aims at properly said to suck the information, of the diverse verbal sources and traditions of groups, etnias and societies, basic for a construction of the past, something that goes deep the memory, the orality, the distant and next past for breaching with the limits of history. However the historian must look at of analytical and empirical form the sources, not considering the worked memory as weapon x, therefore we can find problematic related with the selective memory which is influenced by the way, beyond the subjectivity that much is worked by the historians. Therefore the historiogrfico process walks in the direction of a complexity, however with problematic deep, therefore ' ' never passed it can be repesado or be refuted as aconteceu' '.


But the problem of this system of alliance is that some aggression of a country with the other was had, this would unchain a effect domin. Another one aggravation is the fact of the superiority that each country felt on the other, and which had to this all the powers found that this 4 war would be short. Another question importantssima is as that the European powers legitimized a possible conflict. This legitimacy was conquered through the one creation ' ' enemy externo' ' , and this enemy was not very difficult to obtain, we can catch the case of France and Germany in relation the German unification in 1871. In this conflict France lost for Germany the region of the Alacia and the Lorena that were sufficiently rich in coal and iron, substances cousins of extreme importance for the time (industrialization). Germany in ownership of all these resources, had its sped up growth, what it finished bothering the English. The mentioned systems of alliances above, consist basically in two: the Trplice Alliance and the Entente Cordiale. The first one was composed for the German Empire, Austrohungarian Empire and for Italy, and was part of the second alliance England and France.

The Entente had as main objective the containment of the German empire. Russia only came if to join with the Entente some which had time later to the interest to the French and English capitals that a good usefulness in the increase of Russian industrialization would have, however Russia also had other intentions, as of if approaching to the Balkans so that its support the Slavic populations that if opposed the Austrohungarian domination was facilitated 5. 3 BEGINNING OF the CONLFITO In this topic, will be explanado the causes of the deflagration of the conflict to the light of the research carried through for author Mrcia MOTTA. It initiates saying that what made with that the great war was declared, was the death of the heir of the Austrian throne that happened in Sarajevo, that is the capital of the Bsnia, that in turn was a province of the Austrohungarian empire.